The field of marine mammal science has a growing appeal. Yet, many students do not clearly understand what the field involves. This page addresses questions commonly asked by people seeking a career in marine mammal science in the United States and provides suggestions on how to plan education and work experience.
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What is marine mammal science?
How difficult is it to pursue a career in marine mammal science?
What are typical salaries in marine mammal careers?
What types of jobs involve marine mammals?
Who employs marine mammal scientists?
What education is necessary to become a marine mammal scientist?
What additional career opportunities will a graduate degree provide?
How to find a university program in marine mammal science.
How to find an advisor for graduate studies.
How to write a cover letter with an application.
What information to include in a résumé.
How to obtain letters of recommendation.
How to convince an advisor to accept a graduate student.
How to gain practical work experience with marine mammals.
How to become a marine mammal trainer.
How to become a marine mammal veterinarian.
How to find out about jobs with marine mammals.
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The Internet and Online Services
What is marine mammal science?
There are about 100 species of aquatic or marine mammals that depend on fresh water or the ocean for part or all of their life. These species include pinnipeds, which are seals, sea lions, fur seals and walrus; cetaceans, which are baleen and toothed whales, ocean and river dolphins, and porpoises; sirenians, which are manatees and dugongs; and some carnivores, such as sea otters and polar bears. Marine mammal scientists try to understand these animals' genetic, systematic, and evolutionary relationships; population structure; community dynamics; anatomy and physiology; behavior and sensory abilities; parasites and diseases; geographic and microhabitat distributions; ecology; management; and conservation.
How difficult is it to pursue a career in marine mammal science?
Working with marine mammals is appealing because of strong public interest in these animals and because the work is personally rewarding. However, competition for positions is keen.
There are no specific statistics available on employment of students trained as marine mammal scientists. However, in 1990 the National Science Board reported some general statistics for employment of scientists within the US: 75% of scientists with B.S. degrees were employed (43% of them held positions in science or engineering), 20% were in graduate school, and 5% were unemployed.
Marine mammal scientists are hired because of their skills as scientists, not because they like or want to work with marine mammals. A strong academic background in basic sciences, such as biology, chemistry, and physics, coupled with good training in mathematics and computers, is the best way to prepare for a career in marine mammal science. Persistence and diverse experiences make the most qualified individuals. Often developing a specialized scientific skill or technique, such as acoustics analysis, biostatistics, genetic analysis, or biomolecular analyses, provides a competitive edge.
What are typical salaries in marine mammal careers?
Marine mammal scientists enter this field for the satisfaction of the work, not for the money-making potential of the career. Salaries vary greatly among marine mammal scientists, with government and industry jobs having the highest pay. Salary levels will increase with years of experience and graduate degrees, but generally remain low considering the amount of experience and education needed. High competition in this field most likely will keep salaries at a modest level. A 1990 survey of 1,234 mammalogists conducted by the American Society of Mammalogists indicated that 42.7% of the respondents earned >$40,000/year. The salary range that included the most respondents (21.2%) was the $30,000-$40,000 range.
What types of jobs involve marine mammals?
Most jobs with marine mammals are not as exciting or glamorous as popular television programs make them seem. Marine mammal studies often involve long, hard, soggy, sunburned days at sea, countless hours in a laboratory, extensive work on computers, hard labor such as hauling buckets of fish to feed animals, hours of cleanup, numerous reports, tedious grant applications and permit applications.
As in other fields of science, jobs dealing with marine mammals vary widely. Examples of marine mammal jobs include researcher, field biologist, fishery vessel observer, laboratory technician, animal trainer, animal care specialist, veterinarian, whalewatch guide, naturalist, educator at any level and government or private agency positions in legislative, management, conservation, and animal welfare issues. Many marine mammal scientists work with museum displays and collections, as a curator, an artist, an illustrator, a photographer, or a film maker.
Answers to the following questions will help focus interests and indicate which marine mammal scientists and facilities to contact for education, work experience, and job opportunities.
1)What specific areas are of interest, e.g. anatomy, physiology, evolution, taxonomy, ecology, ethology, psychology, molecular biology, genetics, veterinary medicine, pathology, toxicology, biostatistics, management, conservation, museum curation, or education?
2)What species or group of marine mammals is of interest, e.g. cetaceans, sirenians or marine carnivores?
3) Is a career involved in field or laboratory work desired?
4) Is a career involve with care of animals, teaching, research, or legislative/policy matters wanted?
5) Is working for government, industry, academia, oceanaria, museums, private organizations, or self-employment best?
6) In what part of the world is work desired?
For example, the manatee is an endangered species in Florida. They have a high mortality rate because of al entrapment in flood control gates, collisions with speed boats, and loss of habitat. Local, state, and federal governments fund research on this species. Some local industries also are involved with management of manatees. Therefore, people wanting to study manatees most likely should look for education and work experience at universities and research facilities in Florida.
Who employs marine mammal scientists?
A variety of international, federal, state, and local government agencies employ marine mammal scientists for positions in research, education, management, and legal/policy development. U.S. federal agencies include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Minerals Management Service, US Fish & Wildlife Service, US National Biological Service, US Navy, Office of Naval Research, Coast Guard, and Marine Mammal Commission. Other Federal agencies that work on marine-related issues include the National Park Service, Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Protection Agency, National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of State, and Smithsonian Institution.
When oceanic operations, such as oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation, affect marine mammals these industries often hires marine mammal experts. Because commercial fishing operations can conflict with marine mammal conservation, some fishing organizations hire marine mammal scientists. Many environmental, advocacy, and animal welfare organizations hire marine mammal specialists. Oceanaria and zoos hire marine mammal specialists for veterinary care, husbandry, training, research, and education programs. Museums hire marine mammal specialists for educational programs, research, and curatorial positions.
What education is necessary to become a marine mammal scientist?
High School Studies:
A broad education is essential for finding employment in marine mammal science. High school courses such as biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, computer science, and language will provide a good educational base. Consult a guidance counselor for help in selecting course work. Good grades are essential for admission to a university.
Most entry-level marine mammal jobs require a B.S. degree, with a major in biology, chemistry, physics, geology, or psychology. A minor in any science, computer science, mathematics, statistics, or engineering also can be helpful. Good language and technical writing skills are essential. Many people are surprised by the amount of writing involved in marine mammal professions. Because marine mammals are found worldwide, foreign language training often is useful.
A student must first become a scientist before specializing in marine mammals. Generally, undergraduate students will concentrate on a basic science curriculum and rarely have an opportunity to take courses related to marine mammal science. Specialization in marine mammals generally comes later through practical work experience or while working toward an advanced degree. In other words, if your B.S. degree program does not include courses in marine sciences, do not become discouraged. Concentrate on finding practical experience and/or a master's degree with emphasis in marine mammal science. Maintaining a high grade point average as an undergraduate is very important to gain admission to graduate school.
The master's degree is usually the first opportunity college students have to specialize in marine mammal science. Care should be taken to select an advisor with experience in the subject and a reputable university with a diverse curriculum that will enable s focus on marine mammal science.
Students who have dual majors or interdisciplinary training sometimes have more employment opportunities. Because the field of marine mammal science is so diverse, students who train in specialized areas have practical tools that may help them gain employment. For example, a graduate degree in statistics can be very useful for entering the field of population assessment. A degree in electrical engineering can be particularly useful for bioacoustic research. A graduate degree in environmental law can be important for developing a career in government policy-making or conservation.
What additional career opportunities will a graduate degree provide?
With a B.S. degree, potential positions include animal care specialist, animal trainer, field technician, laboratory technician, consultant for industry, and entry-level government position. Generally, jobs at this level offer little opportunity for self-directed work.
The M.S. degree can facilitate individual work with marine mammals, e.g. designing research projects, developing management plans, supervising field or laboratory studies, or heading programs in education, husbandry, or training.
The acquisition of a Ph.D. or D.V.M. (or both) provides more career opportunities, including design and management of field and laboratory research programs, university faculty positions, coordination of government and industry programs, and management positions in oceanaria or museums.
Years of practical work experience sometimes can substitute for a graduate degree, but the time required to advance is typically longer.
How to find a university program in marine mammal science:
There are very few universities that offer a marine mammal science curriculum. To select an undergraduate university, visit campuses and talk with professors and students about career interests. Most university libraries or counseling centers have university catalogs to identify schools. In addition, there are several publications that list graduate programs by state and discipline, list marine mammal scientists by address, or summarize areas of research by marine mammal scientists (see list at the end of this brochure).
An interest in a certain marine mammal species may influence the geographic location of the graduate university selected. However, in most instances the best university is determined by selecting a graduate advisor specializing in a particular field.
Students should consider applying to several graduate schools. Application deadlines vary, but typically applications should be submitted in January for admission into a graduate program the following fall. Many universities require graduate school applicants to take the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and include the test scores with their applications.
How to find an advisor for graduate studies:
Selecting an advisor for a graduate degree is a very important decision. He or she will become a mentor, a career-long colleague, and will help establish a network of scientific colleagues. An advisor helps to obtain funds to support graduate student research and helps make contacts for future employment.
First, identify marine mammal scientists who are doing current research in an area of interest, their university affiliation, whether they have funds to support graduate students, and if they are accepting new students. Keep in mind that many government and industry scientists also have adjunct appointments at universities and can serve as co-advisors.
There are two ways to find potential advisors:
1) Find the names of authors in current scientific journals, such as Marine Mammal Science, Aquatic Mammals, Journal of Mammalogy, Canadian Journal of Zoology, Journal of Zoology, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, or Fisheries Bulletin, or in recently published books on marine mammals. Scientists who publish may be in situations where they can accept graduate students.
2) Attend specialized scientific conferences on marine mammals hosted by professional societies such as The Society for Marine Mammalogy, International Marine Animal Trainers' Association, European Association for Aquatic Mammals, European Cetacean Society, American Cetacean Society, or International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine. Dates and locations of these meetings are published in the newsletter or journal of the respective societies. At these meetings, make a personal contact with a potential advisor and express your interest in doing graduate work with him or her. Follow-up any good lead with a telephone call, letter, or visit.
Because there is competition for advisors in the field of marine mammal science, an advisor will select students from a pool of applicants. Students should realize that, unlike the case in undergraduate study, graduate school faculty do NOT have to advise students just because they are enrolled at their university. Students sometimes enroll at a university because of a well-known professor and assume they will have the opportunity to work under him or her. BEFORE entering a graduate program, contact the professor and establish his or her willingness to serve as an advisor. If necessary, discuss the possibilities of financial support and decide on a potential research project. Choose a thesis research topic carefully so it is practical, scientifically sound and potentially fundable. Seek advice from others on this, perhaps in the form of a draft research proposal. At many universities, the advisor needs to notify the graduate school to approve an application. Many prospective graduate students with good grades and experience are rejected because they do not have an advisor working from inside the university to facilitate their acceptance.
Many graduate schools will not accept students without financial support. Graduate assistantship funds for marine mammal studies are rare, and most graduate programs have a limited number of teaching assistantships. Students should be prepared to support themselves or find research funds on their own.
How to write a cover letter with an application:
To write the most appropriate cover letter with a job or graduate program application, carefully review the description of the position and tailor the cover letter to fit those requirements. Proper spelling and grammar are essential because they reflect the thoroughness of work. Include the telephone/fax number and address where you can be reached, so a potential employer or advisor can easily find you. Include a list of three names, addresses and telephone numbers of people who can be contacted for a recommendation. Contact these references in advance to ensure they are willing to provide a good recommendation.
What information to include in a resume':
Opinions vary about the appropriate resume' style and length. The attached sample resume' provides some example headings and topics for a resume'. Remember that the priority of items on the resume' might be reordered or changed, depending on the specific job or graduate program. Proper spelling and grammar are essential! Many resumes' end up in the "circular file" if spelling or grammar errors are detected. Expensive paper with fancy logos generally do not enhance an applicant's chances.
How to obtain letters of recommendation:
Always ask a person directly if he/she is willing to write a supportive letter of recommendation. Consider asking past employers, work colleagues and instructors to write letters of support. Choose people who know you and your skills well. The best letters of recommendation are written to match the specific description of the job or graduate program. For example, an instructor will write a letter of recommendation with a different emphasis depending on whether the position is for research, teaching or graduate study. To facilitate this, always give the writer a copy of the job or graduate program description along with a résumé, a pre-addressed, stamped envelope and the line for submitting the letter of recommendation. If possible, provide an outline or draft proposal of any research to be conducted.
How to convince an advisor to accept a graduate student:
1 ) Talk to current or former graduate students of a particular advisor and ask how to promote yourself.
2) Send the advisor a letter and resume, inquiring about the possibility of working with him or her. Be specific about research interests and career goals. Follow-up with a telephone call or visit.
3) Initiate a personal contact with a potential advisor. Faculty members rarely request visits by potential students because such encouragement might be misconstrued as an agreement to serve as the student's advisor. As mentioned earlier, one good opportunity to meet a potential advisor is at a scientific conference. Another strategy is to contact a potential advisor, noting that you just "happen to be in the area" and would like to meet. It is very useful to be informed about the advisor's background, research interests and publications and point out ways that interests interface.
4) Gain practical work experience, which is an increasingly important factor in admission to a graduate program. Develop a well-rounded set of experiences, including work in the marine environment.
5) Publish in a scientific journal. Co-authoring a paper still can impress a potential advisor.
How to gain practical work experience with marine mammals:
As a high school or undergraduate student, practical experience can be gained by volunteering at federal, state, or local organizations that work with marine mammals. For example, volunteer as a laboratory assistant for a research project with marine mammals or volunteer for the marine mammal stranding network in the United States. Also, oceanaria, zoos, and museums often have large volunteer or docent programs. This volunteer experience provides practical skills, an employer reference, a network of contacts in the field of marine mammal science, and most importantly helps determine whether this type of work is appealing. Because they already have observed a volunteer's work habits and commitment, organizations often hire from their pool of volunteers. Many oceanaria, zoos, museums, and government agencies have internships that provide practical experience (see list at the end of this brochure).
Many careers in marine mammal science require experience in the marine environment. SCUBA certification, boat-handling experience, or sea time can be helpful in securing employment in the field of marine mammal science.
How to become a marine mammal trainer:
Most marine mammal trainers start by volunteering at an oceanarium or zoo. Often people work in other departments, such as operations, maintenance, or education, before transferring to a job in animal training. For the best advice about a career in marine mammal training, contact the International Marine Animal Trainers' Association.
How to become a marine mammal veterinarian:
To become a marine mammal veterinarian, follow the basic curriculum and schooling of other veterinarians, but try to gain practical experience with marine mammals by volunteering at an oceanarium or zoo. A few veterinary schools are developing specialized course work in the area of nimal medicine, including marine mammals. For more information, contact the American Veterinary Medical Association and the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine.
How to find out about jobs with marine mammals:
Often a good source for job announcements is the personnel department of a specific agency. The journal "Science" and "The Chronicle of Higher Education" list academic positions at junior colleges, colleges, and universities. Some sources of job announcements in marine mammal science appear at the end of this brochure.
Many jobs are not announced, rather are filled by volunteers at an organization, by a graduate student of a colleague, through an informal interview at a scientific conference, or from a recommendation by a colleague. In addition to what you know, who you know is very important in finding a marine mammal job. It is valuable to keep an active network of marine mammal colleagues. Attending scientific conferences is very useful for maintaining the network and identifying job opportunities. Electronic bulletin boards, such as MARMAM or WHALENET announce upcoming jobs. When looking for a job, make that fact known in these informal networks of marine mammal scientists.
Many job opportunities are a matter of being in the right place at the right time. Controlling the right time is difficult, but obtain the appropriate education, be in the right place, and wait for the right time. For example, chances of obtaining a career designing educational exhibits on marine mammals are greatly enhanced if a candidate has an M.S. degree and volunteers in the exhibits department of an oceanarium.
Good luck in pursuing a career in marine mammal science!
Jeanette Thomas, Past President
Daniel K. Odell
The Society for Marine Mammalogy
The authors thank the Marine Mammal Commission and the Board of Governors of The Society for Marine Mammalogy for their comments and editorial help.
The Society for Marine Mammalogy
The Marine Mammal Commission
BOOKS: Basta, N. 1992. The environmental career guide. John Wiley and Sons. ..........1992. Environmental jobs for scientists and engineers. John Wiley and Sons. Burtis, W.S. 1991. Ocean opportunities. Marine Technology Society, 1825 K St., NW, Washington, DC 20006. Careers in Oceanography and Marine-Related Fields: a special: edition with emphasis on opportunities for sensory or physically disabled persons. 1990. The Oceanography Society. 4052 Timber Ridge Drive, Virginia Beach, VA 23455 Careers in Oceanography and Marine-Related Fields. 1995. The Oceanography Society. 4052 Timber Ridge Drive, Virginia Beach, VA 23455. Chronicle guidance. Marine biologists. 1986. Brief 543, 4th ed. Chronicle Guidance Publications, Inc., Moravia, NY, 5 pp. Heitzmann, W.R. 1988. Opportunities in marine and maritime careers. 2nd ed. With a forward by Jean-Michel Cousteau. Lincolnwood, IL: VGM Career Horizons, a division of National Textbook Company. The new complete guide to environmental careers. 1993. Island Press. CEIP Fund, 68 Harrison Avenue, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02111-1907. The occupational outlook handbook 1992. US Dept of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Peterson's annual guide to undergraduate study, four year colleges. 1995. Princeton, N J: Peterson's Guides, Inc. (annual). Peterson's guide to graduate programs in the biological and agricultural sciences, BK. 3, 25th ed. 1993. Princeton, N J: Peterson's Guides, Inc. Rucciuti, E.R. 1983. They work with wildlife: jobs for people who want to work with animals. New York, NY: Harper & Row Publisher, Inc. Schaefer, F.S. Training and careers in marine science. The International Oceanographic Foundation, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149. Shorto, R. 1992. Careers for animal lovers. Interviews by Russell Shorto. Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press. Stout, P.K. 1975. Marine career series: marine-related occupations. A primer for high school students. University of Rhode Island, Sea Grant Program, Marine Memorandum No. 41, URI, Narragansett, RI. University curricula in oceanography and related fields, a guide to US academic and technical programs, 1988-1991. 1991. Marine Technology Society, 1825 K St. NW, Washington, DC 20006. ARTICLES: American Society of Mammalogists. Careers in MammalogyAnonymous. 1994. What college bound students abroad are expected to know about biology. American Educator, Spring 1994. Published by the American Federation of Teachers. Anonymous. 1994. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Almanac. Vol. 41(1). The Chronicle of Higher Education, P.O. Box 1955, Marion, Ohio 43305, USA. (Whole issue devoted to summary of colleges and universities in the U.S., with statistics about demographics for students, funding and programs - published annually). Baldwin, R.F. 1991. "Doctoring the exotic." Sea Frontiers. 37:30-35. Barrett, G.W. and J.D. Peles. 1994. "Career trends in Mammalogy." Journal of Mammalogy, 75(1):92-96. Barrett, G.W. and G.N. Cameron. 1981. "Career trends and graduate education in Mammalogy." Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, 109 pp. Chase, V. 1992. "I'll do anything to work with whales or dolphins!" Current, 11(1):31-33. Foer, P. 1992. "Immerse yourself in oceanic and coastal grad school studies." Earth Work, 2(6):6-29. PO Box 550, Charlestown, NH 03603. Fox, W. 1992. "Conservation career closeup: National Marine Fisheries Service." Earth Work. 2(6):6-31. PO Box 550, Charlestown, NH 03603. Hemdal, J. 1987. "Careers in marine biology." Freshwater and Marine Aquarium. 10:66-67. Holden, C. (ed.). 1991. "Science careers." Science. 252:1110-1148. Lederman, L.M. 1991. "Science: the end of the frontier?" Science, Suppl., January. Klinowska, M. 1992. "Marine mammal database review." UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies, No. 141. National Research Council. 1995. Summary Report 1994: Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities. National Research Council, Washington, DC. [Available free of charge from: Doctorate Records Project, NRC, OSEP-TJ 2006, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20418. phone: 202-334-3161. Email: email@example.com ] Rosendahl, B. 1990. "Becoming an oceanographer." Sea Frontiers. 36:3. Twiss, J., Jr. 1992. "The new era of oceanographic careers." Earth Work. 2(6):4-10. PO Box 550, Charlestown, NH 03603. INFORMATION SHEETS AND PACKETS: OCEANOGRAPHY American Geophysical Union 2000 Florida Avenue NW Washington, DC 20009 Earth Work Career Publications Service SCA, Attn: Earth Work P.O. Box 550 Charlestown, NH 03603 (various publications on environmental careers) International Oceanographic Foundation 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway Miami, FL 33149 National Aquarium-Baltimore Dept. of Education and Interpretation Pier 3, 501 East Pratt Street Baltimore, MD 21202 The Oceanography Society 4052 Timber Ridge Drive Virginia Beach, VA 23455 Ask for 'Careers in Oceanography and Marine-Related Fields'. MANAGEMENT Dept. of Environmental Protection & Energy Division of Fish, & Wildlife CN 400 Trenton, NJ 08625 MARINE EDUCATION Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Scott Marine Education Center PO Box 7000 Ocean Springs, MS 39564 National Sea Grant Office 1335 East-West Highway Silver Spring, MD 20910 SEA GRANT PROGRAMS BY STATE AND TELEPHONE NUMBERS: About Sea Grant: About Complete listing of Sea Grant programs: Programs Archive of Sea Grant funded documents: Documents Sea Grant Resources: Resources University of Alaska 907-474-7086 University of California 619-534-4440 University of Connecticut 203-445-5108 University of Delaware 302-831-2841 University of Florida 904-392-5870 University of Georgia 404-542-7671 University of Hawaii 808-956-7031 University of Illinois 217-333-1824 Louisiana State University 504-388-6710 University of Maine 207-581-1436 University of Maryland 301-454-5690 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 617-253-7131 University of Michigan 313-763-1437 University of Minnesota 612-625-2765 Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium 601-875-9341 University of New Hampshire 603-862-21 75 New Jersey Marine Sciences Consortium 201-872-1300 State University of New York 516-632-6905 University of North Carolina 919-737-2454 Ohio State University 614-292-8949 Oregon State University 503-754-2714 University of Puerto Rico 809-832-3585 Purdue University 317-494-3584 University of Rhode Island 401-792-6800 South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium 803-727-2078 University of Southern California 213-743-6068 Texas A & M University 409-845-3854 Virginia Graduate Marine Science Consortium 804-924-5965 University of Washington 206-543-6600 University of Wisconsin 608-262-0905 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 508-548-1400 x2578 GRANTS, SCHOLARSHIPS, & TRAINING: American Fisheries Society 5410 Grosvenor Lane Suite 110 Bethesda, MD 20814 National Wildlife Federation 1400 16th Street, NW Washington, DC 20036 Friends of the National Zoo c/o Ms. Joan Grumm National Zoological Park Washington, DC 20008 LASPAU (scholarships for Latin American students) 25 Mount Auburn Street Cambridge, MA 02138 Minority Institutions Marine Science Association Biology Dept, Box 18540 Jackson State University Jackson, MS 39217 National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration Marine Policy Fellowships National Sea Grant College Program 1335 East-West Highway Silver Spring, MD 20910 Student Conservation Association Resource Assistant Program Dept. EW, Box 550 Charlestown, NH 03603 American Society of Mammalogists List of organizations giving grants for mammal research.American Society of Mammalogists Grants-in-Aid of Research up to US $1,000 open to graduate students and upper-level undergraduates who are MEMBERS of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MAMMALOGISTS. Annual application line in March of each year. Albert R. and Alma Shadle Fellowship in Mammalogy American Society of Mammalogists Applicants must be United States citizens and enrolled in or accepted for a graduate program in Mammalogy in a United States college or university. See the Journal of Mammalogy for additional details. INTERNSHIPS: Alaska Sealife Center P. O. Box 1329 Seward, Alaska 99664 USA Aquarium of Niagara Falls Intern/Volunteer program 701 Whirlpool St. Niagara Falls, New York 14301 USA Atlantic Cetacean Research Center Intern/Volunteer Program 70 Thurston Point Road PO Box 1413 Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 USA Belle Isle Zoo & Aquarium Intern/Volunteer Program PO Box 39 Royal Oak, Michigan 48068-0039 USA Center for Coastal Studies Intern Review Committee Box 1036 Provincetown, Massachusetts 02657 USA The Ocean Conservancy Intern/Volunteer Program 1725 DeSales St., NW Washington, D.C. 20036 USA Whale Center of New England Intern/Volunteer Program PO Box 159 Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 USA Chicago Zoological Park Brookfield Zoo Intern/Volunteer Program 3300 Golf Rd. Brookfield, Illinois 60513 USAClearwater Marine Aquarium 249 Windward Passage Clearwater, Florida 33767 USADolphin Research Center Volunteer/Intern Coordinator 58901 Overseas Highway Grassy Key, Florida 33050-6019 email: firstname.lastname@example.orgDolphins Plus P.O. Box 2728 Key Largo, Florida 33037 USA email: email@example.com EPCOT/Living Seas Animal Care Walt Disney World Michelle Matuszewski-May 2020 North Avenue of the Stars Lake Buena Vista, Florida 32830-1000 USAFlorida Dept. of Environmental Protection Florida Marine Research Institute Intern/Volunteer Program Tampa Bay Manatee Watch 100 8th Ave., S.E. St. Petersburg, Florida 33701-5095 USAGulf World Marine Park Attn: Barb Losch 15412 Front Beach Road Panama City Beach, Florida 32413 USAIsles of Shoals Steamship Company Intern Program P.O. Box 311 Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 03802-0311 USA Kewalo Basin Marine Mammal Laboratory Intern Coordinator 1129 Ala Moana Blvd. Honolulu, Hawaii 96814 USA Marine Mammal Research Program Intern/Volunteer Program Texas A&M University at Galveston Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife 4700 Ave. U, Bldg. 303 Galveston, Texas 77551 USA Mote Marine Laboratory Andrea Davis, Coordinator of Intern/Volunteer Services 1600 Thompson Pkwy Sarasota, Florida 34236 USA Mystic Aquarium / Institute for Exploration College Intern Program Volunteer Program 55 Coogan Boulevard Mystic, Connecticut 06355-1997 USA Phone: +(860) 572-5955National Aquarium in Baltimore Pier 3 501 E. Pratt Street Baltimore, Maryland 21202-3194 USA National Museum of Natural History Intern Coordinator, Education Office Room 212, MRC 158 Smithsonian Institution Washington, D.C. 20560 USA Friends of the National Zoo Research Traineeship Program National Zoological Park Washington, D.C. 20008 USA New England Aquarium Intern/Volunteer Program Central Wharf Boston, Massachusetts 02110-3399 USA New York Aquarium Attn.: George Biedenbach/Training Department 610 Surf Avenue Brooklyn, New York 11240 USA Pacific Whale Foundation Intern/Volunteer Program Kealia Beach Plaza 101 N. Kihei Rd., Ste. 21 Kihei, Hawaii 96753-8833 USASociety for Ecological and Coastal Research Gray Whale Ecology and Coastal Ecology Internships P.O. Box 35052 Victoria, British Columbia V8T 5G2 Canada Phone: +250-472-4746 Tethys Research Institute Viale G.B. Gadio 2 I-20121 Milano, ITALY The John G. Shedd Aquarium Internship Coordinator 1200 S. Lake Shore Drive Chicago, Illinois 60605 USAThe Oceania Project (humpback whale research) P.O. Box 646 Byron Bay 248N New South Wales Australia email: firstname.lastname@example.org Theater of the Sea Intern/Volunteer Program 84721 Overseas Highway Islamorada, Florida 33036 USA U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Volunteer Program 1011 E. Tudor Road Anchorage, Alaska 99503 USA U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Internship Program DruAnn Clark, coordinator of Volunteer Programs <email@example.com> Snail Mail applications to: Mark Xitco Attn: Volunteer Programs Space and Naval Warfare Center, Code D351 53560 Hull Street San Diego, CA 92152 Waikiki Aquarium Intern/Volunteer Program 2777 Kalakaua Ave. Honolulu, Hawaii 96815 USA Whale Research Group Dr. Jon Lien 230 Mount Scio Rd. Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland CANADA A1C 5S7 Green Volunteers: An international list of volunteer opportunities (list costs US$16.00 plus $5.00 postage) Lists more than 100 opportunities world-wide, Includes many marine mammal projects. Short and long-term term opportunities available. Some projects require a financial contribution. Contact: Green Volunteers or Green Volunteers P. O. Box 23 1 Greenleaf Woods Drive, #302A Sandy, Bedfordshire Portsmouth, New Hampshire 03810 USA United Kingdom SG19 2XE phone/fax: +44-1767-262481 phone: 1-800-525-9379 email: firstname.lastname@example.org FIELD PROGRAMS (Pay to volunteer): Cetacean Behavior Lab Internships c/o Dr. R. H. Defran Department of Psychology San Diego State University San Diego, CA 92182 USA Coastal Ecosystems Research Foundation 2648 Tennis Cr. Vancouver, BC V6T 2E1 Canada phone: + 604-224-2642 email: email@example.com EarthWatch 680 Mount Auburn Street P.O. Box 403 Watertown, MA 02272-9104 USA Ecovolunteer Program Meijersweg 29 7553 AX Hengelo The Netherlands Mingan Island Cetacean Study 285 Green Street St. Lambert, Quebec J4P 1T3 Canada Oceanic Society Expeditions Fort Mason Center - Bldg. E San Francisco, CA 94123 USA ORES - Centre for Coastal Field Studies Postfach 756 4502 Solothurn Switzerland Phone: +41-32-6236354School for Field Studies 16 Broadway Street Beverly, MA 01915 USA Tethys Research Institute Viale G.B. Gadio 2 I-20121 Milano, ITALYUniversity Research Expedition Programs University of California Berkeley, CA 94720-6586 USAUniversity ProgramsLinks to specific programs Careers in Mammalogy and The Science of Mammalogy American Society of Mammalogists (This is a PDF file.) Careers in Marine Science (Australia) C. Johnson and K. Bleakely (eds) 5th Edition, 1993 Australian Marine Sciences Association, Inc. Cost: $3.00 Australian plus postage (A$2.50 to the U.S.) Lists all Australian marine science programs. Available from: School of Marine Sciences, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072, Australia Marine Science Careers. A Sea Grant Guide to Ocean Opportunities (1996 edition) Sea Grant Communications Office University of New Hampshire Kingman Farm Durham, NH 03824-3512 Cost: US$5.00; make checks payable to UNH Careers in Oceanography and Marine-Related Fields (1995) (no charge for single copies) The Oceanography Society 4052 Timber Ridge Road Virginia Beach, VA 23455Directory of Graduate Programs: (ask for most recent edition) 13th Edition, Vol E. Educational Testing Services, Warner BooksU.S News and World Report Colleges and Careers Center Peterson's Graduate Directory Dept 6608, PO Box 2123 166 Bunn Drive Princeton, NJ 08543 Sea Technology Buyer's Guide Annual Directory, Section F Educational Institutions Compass Publications, Inc. Suite 1000, 1117 N 19th Street Arlington, VA 22209 See listing in Foer 1992 See listing in Klinowska 1992 SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES: American Cetacean Society PO Box 1391 San Pedro, CA 90733 USA American Society of Mammalogists H. Duane Smith, Secretary-Treasurer 501 Widtsoe Building Brigham Young University Provo, UT 84602 American Veterinary Medical Association 1931 N Mecham Road Suite 1000 Schaumburg, IL 60173 USA European Association for Aquatic Mammals c/o Kai Mattsson Sarkanniemi 33230 Tampere FinlandEuropean Cetacean Society Dr. Harald Benke Deutches Museum fur Meereskunde und Fischerei Katharinenberg 14-20 D-18439 Stralsund Germany International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine c/o Dr. Donald Abt, Secretary Treasurer 61 São Paulo Drive East Falmouth, MA 02536 USA International Marine Animal Trainers Association c/o Shelley Ballmann, Secretary 1200 South Lake Shore Drive Chicago, IL 60605 USA Fax: +312-939-2216The Society for Marine Mammalogy OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION: Try this link for more online career guides and documents. American Cetacean Society P.O. Box 1391 San Pedro, California 90733 USA firstname.lastname@example.orgBritish Columbia Marine Mammal Directory West Coast Whale Research Foundation 2020-1040 West Georgia Street Vancouver, BC V6E 4H1 Canada Chronicle Guidance Publications P.O. Box 1190 Moravia, NY 13118-1190 email: email@example.com Occupational Brief #543 - Marine Biologists Occupational Brief #200 - OceanographersThe Environmental Sourcebook Lyons & Burford 31 W 21st Street New York, NY 10010 Conservation Directory National Wildlife Federation 1400 16th Street NW Washington, DC 20036 (ask for most recent edition)Student Conservation Association Resource Assistant Program Earth Work Dept. EW, Box 550 Charlestown, NH 03603 US Ocean Scientists & Engineers Directory (ask for most recent edition) American Geophysical Union 2000 Florida Avenue NW Washington, DC 20009 The Directory of National Environmental Organizations U.S. Environmental Directories P.O. Box 65156 St. Paul, MN 55165 JOB ANNOUNCEMENTS: Try this link for additional job listings on the web.American Women in ScienceEarth Work Circulation Office PO Box 550 Charlestown, NH 03603 Environmental Careers Organization 286 Congress Street Boston, MA 02210 U.S. Government Jobs via FEDWORLD Electronic Bulletin Board (see FedWorld listing under Electronic Mail) Minority Institutions Marine Science Association Biology Dept, Box 18540 Jackson State University Jackson, MS 39217 National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration Personnel Operations Division 1335 East-West Highway Silver Spring, MD 20910 US Office of Personnel Management Summer Job Opportunities in the Federal Government No. 414 (Free Copies) 1900 E Street NW, Room 1416 Washington, DC 20415 Women's Aquatic Network Box 4993 Washington, DC 20008 OCEANARIA, ZOOS & MUSEUMS: American Association of Zookeepers Michael Illig Metro Washington Park Zoo 4001 SW Canyon Road Portland, OR 97221 American Zoo and Aquarium Association 7970-D Old Georgetown Road Bethesda, MD 20814 THE INTERNET and ONLINE SERVICES: American Physician and Scientist gopher to aps.acad-phy-sci.com 70 Academic Position Network Academic Employment NetworkAmerican Physiological Society Career Magazine Searchable job listings for a variety of careers Chronicle of Higher Education - Academe This Week The latest week's job listings Career Links - a number of links to sites with career information.Chronicle or gopher to [chronicle.merit.edu] Employment Opportunities and Job Resources on the Internet gopher to una.hh.lib.umich.edu look under the [inetdirs] menu heading Financial Aid International Marine Mammal Association FEDWORLD National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 USA MARMAM on Internet Marine Mammal Discussion Group To subscribe: send email to: firstname.lastname@example.org In the body of the message write: subscribe marmam YourFirstName YourLastName. Where YourFirstName and YourLastName are replaced by your REAL name. Internet: email@example.com Tethys Research Institute Viale G.B. Gadio 2 I-20121 Milano, ITALY Texas Marine Mammal Research Program The Electronic Zoo UseNet NewsGroups sci.bio sci.research sci.research.careers WHALENET Environet, Park Science Building Simmons College 300 Fenway Boston, MA 02115 firstname.lastname@example.org AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS Marine Careers (1992) VHS or Beta, 18 min. Purchase or rent Marine Communications Office University of Delaware Newark, DE 19716 302-831-8083 TEACHING MATERIALS SeaWorld California Education Department 1720 South Shores Road San Diego, CA 92109 SeaWorld Florida Education Department 7007 Sea World Drive Orlando, FL 32821-8097 SeaWorld Ohio Education Department 1100 Sea World Drive Aurora, OH 44202 SeaWorld Texas Education Department 10500 Sea World Drive San Antonio, TX 78251